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Tetrad Calculator (Beta-testing)          Click here for more biology tools.
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Tetrad Analysis Calculator

Tetrad Calculator is designed for tetrad analysis and demonstrations.

Unordered tetrads with four spores

Use this mode to calculate the recombination frequency between two genes. The map distance between two linked genes are calculated according to the following formula:

cM = 50 * (TT + 6 * NPD) / ( PD + NPD + TT ).

Here PD stands for parental ditype, NPD stands for non-parental ditype, and TT stands for tetratype. PD, NPD, and TT are calculated from the ascus genetic patterns.

Ordered tetrads with four spores

Use this mode to calculate the recombination frequency between the gene and the centromere. The gene-centromere distance is calculated using the following formula:

cM = 1/2 ( % of second division segregation.)

Ordered tetrads with eight spores

Unlike yeast, several species of ascomycete fungi have linear tetrads with eight ascospores. Analysis of asci types can be applied to determine the map distance between the locus and its centromere.

The first-division segregation has the following patterns:

AAAAaaaa
aaaaAAAA.

The second-division segregation has the following patterns:

aaAAAAaa
AAaaAAaa
aaAAaaAA
AAaaaaAA

Rare patterns that differ from a pattern by only one permutation of neighboring spores are classified as belong to the pattern.

Calculate from PD, NPD, and TT

Calculations are made directly from the counts of parental ditype (PD), non-parental ditype (NPD), and tetratype (TT).

Usage

  • Demo

    To use demo, select a type and click on the Demo button.

  • Input data

    1. Select type.
    2. Click on "Enter Gene Names" to input gene names. Type in gene names and click on "Add".
    3. To remove a gene name, type in the gene name, and click on the remove button.
    4. Please note gene names are case sensitive.
    5. Click on "Enter Parental Genotypes" to select for genotypes of parents.
    6. Click on the spore diagrams in the left window to input ascus patterns. Click to change from one parental genotype to another or to unknown.
    7. After finished inputing ascus patterns, click on "Go" to calculate map distances.

    Thanks for using our software! Please let us know your suggestions and comments.

    yeast genetics

  • THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY CHANG BIOSCIENCE ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL CHANG BIOSCIENCE OR ITS SPONSORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.


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